Tuesday, December 21, 2010

Useful Bacteria in Food

Bacteria present in large amounts in food can cause severe food poisoning. Bacteria such as E. coli, particularly strain 0157, the Clostridium and Salmonella species cause serious illness and some of the infections that people develop after eating contaminated food can kill them. But there are other, friendly bacteria that do no harm when we eat food that contains them. In fact, some bacteria in food may be very beneficial and eating foods that are deliberately designed to contain live cultures of these beneficial bugs could be good for health.

Probiotic Foods

Scientists working at the Pasteur Institute in Paris in the early 1900s were the first to suggest that foods containing large amounts of friendly bacteria could repopulate the large intestine, getting rid of potentially or actually harmful bacteria and providing great health benefits. Early observations of a soldier who did not fall ill in a severe Shigella outbreak near to the end of World War I showed that his gut had large amounts of a strain of E. coli bacteria, later termed E. coli Nissle 1917, after its discoverer and the year of its isolation.

This E. coli strain was used successfully as a bacterial 'medicine' to treat other people who were severely ill with Shigella and Salmonella infections. When they ate live cultures, this strain of E. coli bacteria populated their digestive system and won the competition for space and resources, ousting the pathogenic bacteria causing the disease.
Later, other types of bacteria such as those from the Lactobacillus species and the Bifidobacterium species, were found to be able to repopulate the human gut when they were eaten. The term probiotic was introduced in the 1950s to describe substances that could increase the growth of friendly bacteria in the body. They were given this name as they were the opposite of antibiotics – substances that killed bacteria.

Live Yoghurt

Eating yoghurt with actively growing cultures of milk-fermenting bacteria has been common in many cultures for thousands of years but the practice was rediscovered in the US and western Europe during the 1960s because of the interest in probiotic foods. Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the best known species of bacteria to be used to manufacture live yoghurt, but other Lactobacillus species are also used, as are several species of Bifidobacteria.

Other Foods Containing Live Bacteria

As well as yoghurt, live bacteria are found in several traditional foods from different cultures. The Japanese eat tempeh and miso, fermented bean products, and fermented soy sauce also contains live bacteria. Sauerkraut, a German delicacy consists of shredded cabbage that has been fermented by Lactobacillus bacteria and is traditionally eaten with German sausage. Sauerkraut tastes acidic because of the lactic acid produced by the bacterial culture that produces it. A fermented tea, known as kombucha has been drunk in China for thousands of years, and is made from a mixed culture of Acetobacter bacteria, which produce acetic acid, and various yeast cultures. The ancient Chinese believed this to be a health giving drink, and it also became popular in Russia in the 19th century.

Health Benefits of Bacteria in Food

There is growing evidence that eating foods, taking food supplements or even chewing specially developed gum can help to establish the growth of friendly gut micro-organisms. This has been shown to help to fend off pathogenic species, including H. pylori, the bacterium associated with a greatly increased risk of stomach ulcers.

It has also been shown that probiotic foods can reduce the diarrhoea that is common during and after a course of powerful antibiotics. This occurs because the antibiotics kill off many of the bacteria that normally live in the gut in addition to the bacteria the treatment aims to eliminate. There are also believable observations that such foods help people with disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, constipation and ulcerative colitis.
Not so clear cut is whether the claims that probiotic foods can help treat allergies and strengthen the immune system are reliable. Some manufacturers suggest their probiotic yoghurts can also reduce blood pressure, cut the risk of developing cancer of the colon and even slow down some of the effects of the ageing process. There is very little hard evidence to support these claims, and it is unlikely that the large clinical trials needed to test them could ever be carried out. Many would welcome them, but designing trials to distinguish the benefits of probiotic foods from all other aspects of the diet and other lifestyle factors would be very difficult.

source :http://www.typesofbacteria.co.uk/useful-bacteria-food.html

foodborne illnees



What are foodborne illnesses?

Foodborne illnesses are caused by eating food or drinking beverages contaminated with bacteria, parasites, or viruses. Harmful chemicals can also cause foodborne illnesses if they have contaminated food during harvesting or processing. Foodborne illnesses can cause symptoms that range from an upset stomach to more serious symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and dehydration. Most foodborne infections are undiagnosed and unreported, though the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that every year about 76 million people in the United States become ill from pathogens, or disease-causing substances, in food. Of these people, about 5,000 die.

What are the causes of foodborne illnesses?

Harmful bacteria are the most common cause of foodborne illnesses. Some bacteria may be present on foods when you purchase them. Raw foods are the most common source of foodborne illnesses because they are not sterile; examples include raw meat and poultry that may have become contaminated during slaughter. Seafood may become contaminated during harvest or through processing. One in 10,000 eggs may be contaminated with Salmonella inside the egg shell. Produce such as spinach, lettuce, tomatoes, sprouts, and melons can become contaminated with Salmonella, Shigella, or Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7. Contamination can occur during growing, harvesting, processing, storing, shipping, or final preparation. Sources of produce contamination are varied as these foods are grown in soil and can become contaminated during growth or through processing and distribution. Contamination may also occur during food preparation in a restaurant or a home kitchen. The most common form of contamination from handled foods is the calcivirus, also called the Norwalk-like virus.
When food is cooked and left out for more than 2 hours at room temperature, bacteria can multiply quickly. Most bacteria grow undetected because they don’t produce a bad odor or change the color or texture of the food. Freezing food slows or stops bacteria’s growth but does not destroy the bacteria. The microbes can become reactivated when the food is thawed. Refrigeration also can slow the growth of some bacteria. Thorough cooking is needed to destroy the bacteria.

What are the symptoms of foodborne illnesses?

In most cases of foodborne illnesses, symptoms resemble intestinal flu and may last a few hours or even several days. Symptoms can range from mild to serious and include
  • abdominal cramps
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea, which is sometimes bloody
  • fever
  • dehydration

What are the risk factors of foodborne illnesses?

Some people are at greater risk for bacterial infections because of their age or an unhealthy immune system. Young children, pregnant women and their fetuses, and older adults are at greatest risk.

What are the complications of foodborne illnesses?

Some micro-organisms, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum, cause far more serious symptoms than vomiting and diarrhea. They can cause spontaneous abortion or death.
In some people, especially children, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can result from infection by a particular strain of bacteria, E. coli O157:H7, and can lead to kidney failure and death. HUS is a rare disorder that affects primarily children between the ages of 1 and 10 years and is the leading cause of acute renal failure in previously healthy children. A child may become infected after consuming contaminated food or beverages, such as meat, especially undercooked ground beef; unpasteurized juices; contaminated water; or through contact with an infected person.
The most common symptoms of HUS infection are vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which may be bloody. In 5 to 10 percent of cases, HUS develops about 5 to 10 days after the onset of illness. This disease may last from 1 to 15 days and is fatal in 3 to 5 percent of cases. Other symptoms of HUS include fever, lethargy or sluggishness, irritability, and paleness or pallor. In about half the cases, the disease progresses until it causes acute renal failure, which means the kidneys are unable to remove waste products from the blood and excrete them into the urine. A decrease in circulating red blood cells and blood platelets and reduced blood flow to organs may lead to multiple organ failure. Seizures, heart failure, inflammation of the pancreas, and diabetes can also result. However, most children recover completely.
See a doctor right away if you or your child has any of the following symptoms with diarrhea:
  • High fever—temperature over 101.5°, measured orally
  • Blood in the stools
  • Diarrhea that lasts more than 3 days
  • Prolonged vomiting that prevents keeping liquid down and can lead to dehydration
  • Signs of severe dehydration, such as dry mouth, sticky saliva, decreased urination, dizziness, fatigue, sunken eyes, low blood pressure, or increased heart rate and breathing rate
  • Signs of shock, such as weak or rapid pulse or shallow breathing
  • Confusion or difficulty reasoning

How are foodborne illnesses diagnosed?

Your doctor may be able to diagnose foodborne illnesses from a list of what you’ve eaten recently and from results of appropriate laboratory tests. Diagnostic tests for foodborne illnesses should include examination of the feces. A sample of the suspected food, if available, can also be tested for bacterial toxins, viruses, and parasites.

How are foodborne illnesses treated?

Most cases of foodborne illnesses are mild and can be treated by increasing fluid intake, either orally or intravenously, to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. People who experience gastrointestinal or neurologic symptoms should seek medical attention.
In the most severe situations, such as HUS, hospitalization may be needed to receive supportive nutritional and medical therapy. Maintaining adequate fluid and electrolyte balance and controlling blood pressure are important. Doctors will try to minimize the impact of reduced kidney function. Dialysis may be needed until the kidneys can function normally. Blood transfusions also may be needed.

How are foodborne illnesses prevented?

Most cases of foodborne illnesses can be prevented through proper cooking or processing of food, which kills bacteria. In addition, because bacteria multiply rapidly between 40°F and 140°F, food must be kept out of this temperature range.
Follow these tips to prevent harmful bacteria from growing in food:
  • Refrigerate foods promptly. If prepared food stands at room temperature for more than 2 hours, it may not be safe to eat. Set your refrigerator at 40°F or lower and your freezer at 0°F.
  • Cook food to the appropriate internal temperature—145°F for roasts, steaks, and chops of beef, veal, and lamb; 160°F for pork, ground veal, and ground beef; 165°F for ground poultry; and 180°F for whole poultry. Use a meat thermometer to be sure. Foods are properly cooked only when they are heated long enough and at a high enough temperature to kill the harmful bacteria that cause illnesses.
  • Prevent cross-contamination. Bacteria can spread from one food product to another throughout the kitchen and can get onto cutting boards, knives, sponges, and countertops. Keep raw meat, poultry, seafood, and their juices away from all ready-to-eat foods.
  • Handle food properly. Always wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with warm, soapy water before and after handling raw meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, produce, or eggs. Wash your hands after using the bathroom, changing diapers, or touching animals.
  • Wash utensils and surfaces before and after use with hot, soapy water. Better still, sanitize them with diluted bleach—1 teaspoon of bleach to 1 quart of hot water.
  • Wash sponges and dish towels weekly in hot water in the washing machine.
  • Keep cold food cold and hot food hot.
  • Maintain hot cooked food at 140°F or higher.
  • Reheat cooked food to at least 165°F.
  • Refrigerate or freeze perishables, produce, prepared food, and leftovers within 2 hours.
  • Never defrost food on the kitchen counter. Use the refrigerator, cold running water, or the microwave oven.
  • Never let food marinate at room temperature—refrigerate it.
  • Divide large amounts of leftovers into small, shallow containers for quick cooling in the refrigerator.
  • Remove the stuffing from poultry and other meats immediately and refrigerate it in a separate container.
  • Wash all unpackaged fruits and vegetables, and those packaged and not marked “pre-washed,” under running water just before eating, cutting, or cooking. Scrub firm produce such as melons and cucumbers with a clean produce brush. Dry all produce with a paper towel to further reduce any possible bacteria.
  • Do not pack the refrigerator. Cool air must circulate to keep food safe.
For more information about prevention of foodborne illnesses, the U.S. Department of Agriculture provides a fact sheet on safe food handling.

What is food irradiation?

Food irradiation is the treatment of food with high energy such as gamma rays, electron beams, or x rays as a means of cold pasteurization, which destroys living bacteria to control foodborne illnesses. The United States relies exclusively on the use of gamma rays, which are similar to ultraviolet light and microwaves and pass through food leaving no residue. Food irradiation is approved for wheat, potatoes, spices, seasonings, pork, poultry, red meats, whole fresh fruits, and dry or dehydrated products. Although irradiation destroys many bacteria, it does not sterilize food. Even if you’re using food that has been irradiated by the manufacturer, you must continue to take precautions against foodborne illnesses—through proper refrigeration and handling—to safeguard against any surviving organisms. If you are traveling with food, make sure perishable items such as meats are wrapped to prevent leakage. Be sure to fill the cooler with plenty of ice and store it in the car, not the trunk. If any food seems warmer than 40°F, throw it out.

Links to Other Disorders Related to Foodborne Illnesses

Scientists suspect that foodborne pathogens are linked to chronic disorders and can even cause permanent tissue or organ destruction. Research suggests that when some people are infected by foodborne pathogens, the activation of their immune system can trigger an inappropriate autoimmune response, which means the immune system attacks the body’s own cells. In some people, an autoimmune response leads to a chronic health condition. Chronic disorders that may be triggered by foodborne pathogens are
  • arthritis
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • kidney failure
  • Guillain-BarrĂ© syndrome
  • autoimmune disorders
Further research is needed to explain the link between these disorders and foodborne illnesses.

Common Sources of Foodborne Illness

Sources of illness: Raw and undercooked meat and poultry
Symptoms: Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting
Bacteria: Campylobacter jejuni, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella
Sources of illness: Raw foods; unpasteurized milk and dairy products, such as soft cheeses
Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea
Bacteria: L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, Staphylococcus aureus, C. jejuni
Sources of illness: Raw and undercooked eggs. Raw eggs are often used in foods such as homemade hollandaise sauce, caesar and other salad dressings, tiramisu, homemade ice cream, homemade mayonnaise, cookie dough, and frostings.
Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea
Bacterium: Salmonella enteriditis
Sources of illness: Raw and undercooked shellfish
Symptoms: Chills, fever, and collapse
Bacteria: Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Sources of illness: Improperly canned goods; smoked or salted fish
Symptoms: Double vision, inability to swallow, difficulty speaking, and inability to breathe. Seek medical help right away if you experience any of these symptoms.
Bacterium: C. botulinum
Sources of illness: Fresh or minimally processed produce; contaminated water
Symptoms: Bloody diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting
Bacteria: E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia enterocolitica, viruses, and parasites

Points to Remember

Foodborne illnesses result from eating food or drinking beverages that are contaminated with bacteria, viruses, or parasites.
People at greater risk for foodborne illnesses include young children, pregnant women and their fetuses, older adults, and people with lowered immunity.
Symptoms usually resemble intestinal flu. See a doctor immediately if you have more serious problems or do not seem to be improving as expected.
Treatment may range from replacement of lost fluids and electrolytes for mild cases of foodborne illnesses to hospitalization for severe conditions such as HUS.
You can prevent foodborne illnesses by taking the following precautions:
  • Wash your hands with warm, soapy water before and after preparing food and after using the bathroom or changing diapers.
  • Keep raw meat, poultry, seafood, and their juices away from ready-to-eat foods.
  • Cook foods properly and at a high enough temperature to kill harmful bacteria.
  • Refrigerate foods within 2 hours or less after cooking because cold temperatures will help keep harmful bacteria from growing and multiplying.
  • Clean surfaces well before and after using them to prepare food.


food sanitation

What Is Food Sanitation?

Food sanitation is a series of protocols which are designed to prevent the contamination of food, keeping it safe to eat. Numerous nations have specific laws in place concerning food sanitation, along with lengthy lists of recommendations from public health agencies. The practice of food sanitation is especially important to people in the food industry, at every step of the supply chain from workers in the fields to waiters at restaurants, but home cooks also need to observe the basics of food sanitation for safety.

From the moment that food is harvested to the time that it is eaten, it is vulnerable to cross-contamination with bacteria and other substances which could be harmful. The key to food sanitation is keeping food safe and clean, with all of the handlers observing personal hygiene to avoid introducing harmful elements to food, and complying with food sanitation recommendations concerning safe holding temperatures for food, safe cooking temperatures, sterilization of cutting boards and other implements, and so forth.

At home, common sense precautions like keeping foods frozen or refrigerated before use, washing foods before consumption, washing hands before handling food, cooking or reheating food thoroughly, and using separate cutting boards for meats and vegetables are often sufficient to keep people from getting sick. Certain foods may require additional precautions; people making foods with raw fishes and meats, for example, need to select their ingredients carefully at the store and handle them with special care because bacteria will not be eliminated through cooking.
In the commercial food industry which prepares packaged foods, to-go foods in locations like delis, and meals in restaurants, food sanitation can get extremely complex. A single mistake along the sanitation chain could make numerous people sick. If, for example, someone failed to wash his or her hands after using the restroom and then prepared boxed salads for customers of a deli, these customers could get sick from fecal bacteria on the leaves of the salad greens.

Outbreaks of food borne illness due to poor food sanitation are a recurrent problem in many regions of the world. Failure to process foods properly has led to sickness from peanut butter, spinach, hamburger meat, and many other basic staples, and outbreaks have also been traced to restaurants, roadside food stands, and many other locations where food is sold or traded. Even institutions like churches and community bake sales are not exempt from food sanitation issues, making it important for people to remember to use handling precautions every time they come into contact with food.

how to make donut

Wednesday, December 15, 2010

about nick ,

nick live unperfectly in the world. but he never give up and he enjoy his life very well.
lord give him strengh to face his problem,can'you imagine you live with only a pair of hand?

we must be grateful because god already give perfect body. unlike nick that doesn't has both arms and legs.
although, he is disable, he can adapt him self in any situasion,plus,we should never give up.

after watching the vidoe, i fell like got a new strength in me. i learned how to be more grateful in life
because i am borned perfectly with all my body part together.

i have learned to live my life to the fullest i also learned not to give up easily when facing difficulty.
we must be gretful in our life. we are luckier than nick.but we never satisfied with our life.